Individual Ingredient Highlights:
*"Lipotropic factors are a supplement category that supports the liver to metabolize fat and excrete toxins. The lipotropic factors choline, inositol, and L-methionine positively enhance liver function and specific chemical reactions that promote detoxification and fat metabolism. Lipotropic analogy: Lipotropic factors are like the hand that squeezes the water out of a full sponge, except here the sponge is filled with fat and toxins.
Lipotropic factors also act as the body s natural emulsifiers, better holding blood lipids in solution and resisting lipid deposition within the cardiovascular system. Sufficient lipotropic factors can also keep homocysteine levels in check to support better cardiovascular health. A high level of blood serum homocysteine was once considered to be a marker of potential cardiovascular (risk factor for heart attack and stroke) disease." Dr. E
Beet Leaf (Beta vulgaris) Beta vulgaris have been utilized for their medicinal properties since ancient times. Regarded as having laxative properties to aid digestion. Known as a remedy for indigestion, acidity, gastritis and heartburn.
Betaine HCl has other benefits for the body beyond digestion support. Betaine is linked to healthy homocysteine levels, a variable in healthy bone metabolism. Betaine works with B vitamins to synthesize amino acids, precursor to SAM-e (S-adenosyl-L-Methionine). It works with the body to support healthy, natural digestion. Betaine mirrors the action of healthy stomach acid levels, supporting comfortable digestion.
Black Radish (whole) (Raphanus sativus) is a relative of phytonutrient-rich broccoli and kale provides powerful, whole-body antioxidant protection and has a long history of use by herbalists. Traditional Asian and European applications use black radish root for liver cleansing, appetite stimulant, gallbladder tonic and digestive support. In traditional Chinese practice, the root supports breathing and pulmonary health. It's been a longtime favorite of herbalists as a wellness companion in the winter due to the plant's naturally occurring vitamin C. Black radish is a cruciferous vegetable with powerful antioxidant phytochemicals, all of which you'll get in our full-spectrum root.
Cholineis an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient* and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. Choline is found in the fats that make up our cell membranes and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Adequate intakes (AI) for this micronutrient of between 425 to 550 milligrams daily, for adults, have been established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
*An essential nutrient is one required for normal body functioning but that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from a dietary source.
Choline is often taken as a form of 'smart drug' or nootropic, due to the role that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays in various cognition systems within the brain. Research suggests that memory, intelligence, and mood are mediated at least in part by acetylcholine metabolism in the brain. Choline is also known as a potent lipotropic agent** and has been validated as such, in scientific journals and clinical practice for over 75 years.
**Lipotropic agents are those which help catalyze the break down of fat during metabolism in the body. Choline is the major lipotropic agent in mammals and other known lipotropic agents are important only insofar as they contribute to the synthesis of choline (Barak, 1973)
Chromium Picolinate is a combination of the essential mineral chromium and picolinic acid. Trace amounts of chromium are found in everyday foods like meat, poultry, fish, and whole-grain breads. When foods containing chromium are processed, they are stripped of this essential mineral, making typical American diets deficient in chromium. Studies estimate that the average daily intake of chromium to be around 33 micrograms (1,000 micrograms = 1 milligram, 1,000 milligrams = 1 gram).
A 1968 research study demonstrated that when animals didn't receive adequate levels of chromium, insulin was not optimally effective, and damage to insulin-dependent systems can occur (Schroeder, 1968). This finding led the FDA to recommend a daily chromium intake of approximately 130 mcg, as infinitesimal amounts of chromium are needed to aid the transport of blood glucose across cell membranes. Combining chromium with picolinic acid simply aids in efficient chromium absorption, and it is this combined form that is popular with athletes and dieters alike.
Glutamic Acid Hcl, also known as glutamate, is one of the twenty most common natural amino acids. Glutamic acid is crucial for proper cell function. Glutamic acid is not considered an essential amino acid because the body has the ability to manufacture it from simpler compounds.
Glutamic acid functions as both a building block in protein synthesis as well as the most widespread neurotransmitter in brain function. It is involved in both the learning and memory process.
Grapefruit (whole) (Citrus paradisi): Grapefruit or its juice have potential in influencing weight loss and promoting cholesterol reduction, and have demonstrated antibacterial activity in the urinary tract.
L-Carnitine, an amino acid derivative, is found in nearly every cell of the body. L-carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membranes in the mitochondria, where they are processed to produce biological energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
Supplemental L-carnitine may have cardio-protective activity in addition to beneficially affecting cardiac function. It may have a triglyceride-lowering effect in some as well as help to elevate HDL-cholesterol levels. L-carnitine may also have antioxidant properties.
Inositolis classified as a member of the vitamin B complex (often referred to as vitamin B8), though it is not considered a vitamin itself because it is not a vital amine (contains no nitrogen) and is synthesized by the human body. It is most prevalent in the heart and brain.
Inositol is used by the body to form cell membranes, and it allows for the proper functioning of cells. As a dietary and exercise aide, inositol assists in the transmission of nerve signals, and helps to transport lipids (fats) within the body. Inositol may also aid in and increase the efficiency of muscle contractions, as well as aiding in the conversion of body fat (fuel) to useable energy benefiting both workouts and weight loss.
L-Methionine is classified as an essential amino acid for humans and therefore must be supplied in the diet. Methionine is a good source of dietary sulfur and may be an important adjunct in the treatment of certain forms of arthritis, skin conditions, fibromyalgia, allergies, and chemical sensitivities. Methionine also assists in the metabolism of fats and may prevent its build-up in the liver and arterial walls. If fats are continually being deposited it will eventually begin to obstruct blood flow to the brain, heart, kidneys, and reproductive organs, leading to a possible stroke or heart attack.
The ability of L-methionine to reduce the liver-toxic effects of such hepatotoxins as acetaminophen and methotrexate has led to the suggestion that methionine should be added to acetaminophen products.
L-Phenylalanine is an essential, nine-carbon amino acid and is a precursor to the amino acid tyrosine. Because tyrosine is necessary for the synthesis of proteins and the production of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, phenylalanine is an extremely important nutrient that must be obtained through the diet or supplementation.
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine [1,2]. It performs a wide variety of functions in your body and is essential for your good health. For example, vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism. It is also essential for red blood cell metabolism. The nervous and immune systems need vitamin B6 to function efficiently, [3-6] and it is also needed for the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin (a vitamin) [1,7].
Hemoglobin within red blood cells carries oxygen to tissues. Your body needs vitamin B6 to make hemoglobin. Vitamin B6 also helps increase the amount of oxygen carried by hemoglobin. A vitamin B6 deficiency can result in a form of anemia  that is similar to iron deficiency anemia.
Vitamin B6 also helps maintain your blood glucose (sugar) within a normal range. When caloric intake is low your body needs vitamin B6 to help convert stored carbohydrate or other nutrients to glucose to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
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 Shibata K, Mushiage M, Kondo T, Hayakawa T, Tsuge H. Effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1995; 59:2060-3.