What do COX-2 and 5-LOX have to do with pain?
Scientific research has defined naturally occurring enzymes known as Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) which are implicated in a number of inflammatory conditions. Unlike its more benign and protective sister COX-1 the harmful COX- 2 enzyme is present only during periods of inflammation. COX-2 and 5-LOX form the destructive duo responsible for the production of the pro-inflammatory type of mediators called eicocasonoids; specifically prostaglandins PGE-2 and leukotrienes.
Those suffering with pain have used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) that are available over the counter for years. These medications work by inhibiting the formation of the COX enzymes. The problem is that the NSAIDS block both the harmful COX-2 and the helpful COX-1 enzymes. The COX-1 enzyme functions as a protective mechanism for stomach lining. Long term inhibition of this vital COX-1 enzyme by overuse of these drugs has caused many gastric disorders including bleeding ulcers.
Thankfully in the beginning by grand design certain plants were evolved that naturally help us with the pain caused by inflammation. These plants have been used for generations by the native peoples throughout the world. Over time, researchers have discovered the natural compounds in a number of different plant sources that can significantly support the body s response to inflammatory conditions.
Which plant extracts are in CAOH Herbal Arthritis & Joint Support Formula and what do they do?
Holy Basil Extract (Ocimum sanctum) Ursolic Acid
Holy Basil is an annual herb native to India. Considered a sacred herb by the Hindus, it s used in Ayurvedic medicine for a number of different conditions. Holy Basil contains the natural compound ursolic acid, which helps to support immune system function and has proven useful in dealing with COX-2 & 5-LOX.
Turmeric Extract (Curcuma longa)
Turmeric is a perennial plant found primarily in southern and eastern Asia. It s one of the most popular and widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. The active component in Turmeric is curcumin, which is a potent antioxidant compound that provides outstanding benefits when dealing COX-2 & 5-LOX.
Ginger Extract (Zingiber officinale)
One of the most popular and widely used herbs today, Ginger is an important part of many different Asian medical systems. Primarily used to detoxify the body and calm an upset stomach, Ginger also supports circulation and has a beneficial effect on COX-2 & 5-LOX.
Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Widely distributed throughout southern Asia, Green Tea is also found in Africa. It contains a veritable treasure trove of antioxidant compounds, including polyphenols, which support immune system function. Research shows that one particular polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is over 200 times more powerful than vitamin E!
Boswellin (Boswellia serrata)
This large tree is native to India and yields a gummy resin with a wide variety of applications. One of the most well-used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine, Boswellin contains boswellic acids, which support healthy circulation and work to deactivate certain chemical triggers often associated with COX-2 & 5-LOX.
Bromelain (Pineapple enzyme)
Bromelain is a compound extracted from pineapples that research shows has a number of beneficial effects in dealing with COX-2 & 5-LOX. Bromelain works by breaking down and removing proteins in inflamed tissues.
Baikal Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis)
Numerous flavonoid components in Baikal skullcap contribute to the herb s complex anti-inflammatory action. Several of these, including baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, block the acute production of nitric oxide at the site of inflammation while at the same time inhibit COX-2 gene expression. The anti-inflammatory action is also due to inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic.
Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, found in grapes and Polygonum cuspidatum root extract, exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity. Although the exact mechanisms of action are unknown, resveratrol has been reported to inhibit improper up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS through the suppression of NF-kappa B activation. Resveratrol also significantly decreases arachidonic acid release. The combination of these two actions results in a marked reduction of prostaglandin synthesis. Resveratrol also exerts its anti-inflammatory action in part due to its potent anti-oxidant activity, especially against superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, and organic radicals.
Tree Turmeric/Indian Berberry (Berberis aristata) Berberine
Tree Turmeric contains significant natural amounts of an isoquinoline alkaloid called berberine which has recently been investigated for its anti-inflammatory action. Berberine selectively inhibits COX-2 transcriptional activity without inhibiting COX-1. In addition, berberine is an efficient scavenger of hydroxyl free radicals, inhibitor of membrane lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and thromboxane biosynthesis.